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Menampilkan postingan dari Januari, 2014

Focus on Biomass Ash

Utilization of biomass with thermal route which is combustion and gasification will be generated ash residue. While the pyrolysis due to work at low temperatures (400-600 C) and without oxygen / air then there is no ash. Minerals contained in the biomass will remain behind in the form of charcoal products in the pyrolysis process. Ash content and ash chemistry greatly affects the utilization of biomass in addition to heating value, particle size and moisture content. In general characterization of ash from biomass is described by Bryers as follows:1.High  silica (Si) and potassium (K) ash content  while the calcium (Ca) is low, with low fusion temperature derived from the group of agricultural biomass wastes. 2.Low silica (Si) and potassium (K) ash content while calcium (Ca) is high, with a high fusion temperature derived from a group of nearly all the woody biomass. Specifications are best for combustion and gasification.3.High potassium (K) and phosphorus ash content, with low fusio…

EFB Briquetting For Bioenergy And Other Purposes

Solid waste such as Empty Fruit Bunch-EFB numbers are very abundant in palm oil mills and to this day are generally not processed moreover utilized optimally.  EFB waste is generally just dumped somewhere and left to decompose naturally through biological processes. Some places have used it as mulch or as an organic fertilizer. But compared to the amount produced, processed EFB are few in number and little added value. The biological processes are also running slow so it takes a big investment to process all EFB waste every day when will use the process. Eco-friendly palm oil mills and "zero waste" certainly impossible achieved.
As energy needs continue to increase every time the diversification of energy becomes important and should be done. These shorter process and results can be used immediately would be an option for the EFB waste processing. Desification technology of biomass into briquette is an attractive option to implement. Briquetting is the shortest route to proc…

Carbon Positive, Carbon Carbon Neutral or Negative?

Greenhouse gases from burning fossilfuels have caused the Earth's temperature to rise. Increasing the temperature of the earth or global warming causing numerous disasters due to climate change in a number of places on earth. When greenhouse gases not controlled then the result of damage to the environment of the earth will be more severe. Therefore, efforts were made to reduce greenhouse gases as the cause of environmental problems. In general, there are four common scenarios to prevent the global warming effect of CO2 in the atmosphere gradually, namely: 1.increasing the efficiency so the fossil fuel consumption decreases, 2.mix of renewable fuels with fossil fuels so that fossil fuel consumption has also decreased, 3.substitution of fossil fuels with renewable fuels 4.and the absorption of CO2 in the atmosphere so that the concentration of greenhouse gases can be reduced. Here are some basic terms related to the above problems. Based on the origin and the effect that CO2 in the atmo…

Production Process Wood Pellet From Wood Biomass

These variables have tended to make pelleting more of an “art” than a “science”, though signifi cant strides are being made in the sophistication of this process, bringing these variables under more control.

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Biomass Briquette : Piston/Ram Type or Screw Type?

The dimensions of briquettes and pellets are distinguished because of its size. Pellet diameter size less than 25 mm, while the briquettes is more than 25 mm. In contrast to wood pellets that have only one kind of shape that is cylindrical, biomassbriquette has a variety of shapes such as cylindrical, hexagonal, and beams. In addition to the commercial side of the biomass briquette production process is based on grouped into two: first, piston / ram type are made with a piston or mechanical press with high pressure, while the screw-type with screw extruder made ​​the biomass experiencing continuous extrusion with the heated die. In the ram / ​​piston press wear of machine contact with the biomass smaller than the screw extruder. Energy consumption for the ram / ​​piston type is also smaller than the screw extruder type. But in terms of quality and production procedures,  screw extruder type superior than superior to the piston press technology. The presence of a hole in the middle of …

Chlorine Corrosion, Ghost The Feared Powerplant

There are 3 groups of biomass used as powerplant fuel around the world based on its quality such as calorific value, ash content and ash chemistry.  First, woody biomass includes all woody trees such as eucalyptus, calliandra, gliricidia and so on. The second group is agro-industry wastes such as ricehusk, baggase, coconut shell, palm shell and so on. While in the third group is grasses.

Although in general the biomass has a low concentration of chlorine (except straw) compared with coal, heavy corrosion occurs in a powerplant that use biomass fuel and cause leaks in the pipes of heat exchanger with  less than 10,000 hours of operation. Corrosion of heat transfer apparatus is strongly associated with ash deposits in the pipes. The mechanism of the complex reactions of chlorine corrosion in boiler pipes like this chart:
Superheater steam pipes are generally not designed to accommodate the chlorine in biomass fuels. Corrosion mechanisms above are quite well understood by designers and …

Fluidized Bed Combustion System Best Match For Agroindustrial Waste Biomass

Optimization of Biomass-Coal Cofiring in Coal Fired Powerplant

Biomass-coal cofiringhas beencommonly performedby a numberof coalpower plantsinEuropeandAmericawith aprimarymotivationforreducing theenvironmental impact ofemissions. Currentlythe percentage ofcofiringbiomasswithcoalis stillsmallon averagebelow10%. Itcanalsooccur due toa limitedsupply ofwoodpellets. Butin termsofoperationalcofiringbiomass-coal fly ashwillreducesignificantly.On the otherhand, if the percentage ofbiomass-coal cofiringisaddedwillcausedepositsonboilerpipesthatwilldisruptthe process ofheattransferinthefurnacecausinginefficient useof fuelwithoneindicatedbythe hightemperature ofthe fluegas.
Thereare threetechniquescommonlyusedinbiomass-coal cofiring: 1.Mixingof biomassandcoalinthe fuelhandling system(then fed tothe boiler). 2.Setting up aseparatebiomasswithcoal, and theninjectintothe boiler. 3.Gasificationof biomassto producea gaswhich is thenburnedinthe boilerdirectlyorusing theintegratedgasificationcombined cycle(IGCC) system.Worldwidereported morethan200coal power plantthatha…

Whether The Wood Biomass is Preferred Than Agro-Industrial Waste For Pellet Production?

Calorific value, ash contentandashchemistryarethreeimportantparametersin determining thequality of thepellets. Abovethree parametersis strongly influencedby theraw materialforthe production ofpellets. Highcalorific value, lowash contentandashchemistrythat is friendly tothe boilerpipesareideal conditionssought byusers of pellets.Selection ofraw materialsforthe production ofpelletsisthe keywordtoachievetheideal condition.
The demandof woodpelletsforexporton a largescalethatthe averageover5000tons/monthrequire the supplyof raw material ofsawdustorwoodsawmill wastein large quantities.It isdifficult to fulfill. Small-scale woodpelletmanufacturerwitha capacityof lessthan 1000tons/monthmaybea going concern. Supply ofraw materialthis is one ofthe keyfactorof businesssuccessandsustainabilityof thewoodpellets.
Agro-industrywastessuch asempty fruit bunchesof palm oil, coffee husk, rice husk, corncoband soas a potentialraw material for pellet. Quantityofrawmaterialofthe waste is overflowso thata mo…

Torrefied Wood: Biomass Fuel of Substituting Coal in The Future